Acetone (as-i-tohn) is a colorless, mobile, flammable liquid. It is the main ingredient in nail polish remover and paint thinners. It is also widely used for cleaning purposes. Acetone is also extremely flammable so it should be used very carefully. The chemical formula for acetone is (CH3)2CO. The molecular weight of acetone is 58.08 g/mole. Acetone is most soluble in cold or hot water. Humans produce acetone in our bodies but not in large enough amounts to cause harm. We produce and dispose of it through normal metabolic processes. When inhaling the chemical in large doses, it has been shown that it causes dizziness, headaches, faint and in some cases may cause you to pass out. This chemical harmful for people who have diabetes at a higher rate than healthy human beings. It is an organic compound that is made of 3 carbon atoms and one oxygen atom that are in a chain and double bonded around the central carbon atom.
Acetone is produced and disposed of in the human body through normal metabolic processes. It is normally present in blood and urine. Small amounts of acetone are produced in the body by the decarboxylation of ketone bodies. Since it is a byproducts of fermentation, acetone is a byproduct of the distillery industry. People with diabetes produce it in larger amounts. Reproductive toxicity tests show that it has low potential to cause reproductive problems. Due to the higher energy requirements in pregnant women, nursing mothers and children, they have higher levels of acetone. Ketogenic diets that increase acetone in the body are used to reduce epileptic attacks in infants and children who suffer from recalcitrant refractory epilepsy.

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Acetone in the atmosphere: Distribution, sources, and sinks
Acetone (CH3COCH3) was found to be the dominant nonmethane organic species present in the atmosphere sampled primarily over eastern Canada (0–6 km, 35°–65°N) during ABLE3B (July to August 1990). A concentration range of 357 to 2310 ppt (= 10−12 v/v) with a mean value of 1140 ± 413 ppt was measured. Under extremely clean conditions, generally involving Arctic flows, lowest (background) mixing ratios of 550 ± 100 ppt were present in much of the troposphere studied. Correlations between atmospheric mixing ratios of acetone and select species such as C2H2, CO, C3H8, C2C14 and isoprene provided important clues to its possible sources and to the causes of its atmospheric variability. Biomass burning as a source of acetone has been identified for the first time. By using atmospheric data and three-dimensional photochemical models, a global acetone source of 40–60 Tg (= 1012 g)/yr is estimated to be present. Secondary formation from the atmospheric oxidation of precursor hydrocarbons (principally propane, isobutane, and isobutene) provides the single largest source (51%). The remainder is attributable to biomass burning (26%), direct biogenic emissions (21%), and primary anthropogenic emissions (3%). Atmospheric removal of acetone is estimated to be due to photolysis (64%), reaction with OH radicals (24%), and deposition (12%). Model calculations also suggest that acetone photolysis contributed significantly to PAN formation (100–200 ppt) in the middle and upper troposphere of the sampled region and may be important globally. While the source-sink equation appears to be roughly balanced, much more atmospheric and source data, especially from the southern hemisphere, are needed to reliably quantify the atmospheric budget of acetone.
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Inhaling acetone can have serious long term effects on a person's health. These effects include irregular of rapid heart rythums, heart failure, muscule damage and weakness, and even death.

Uses of acetone
  • A common use of acetone is as a solvent, which is a substance that is capable of dissolving another substance. It is a popular solvent for many plastics and synthetic fibers. It is also used for thinning fiberglass resin, paint, vinyl, adhesives and varnishes. It can be used to dissolve epoxies and glue before and after it sets. It is also used to dissolve hazardous chemical spills, as a degreaser and as a cleaner. It is also used as a solvent/carrier in many pharmaceuticals.
  • Because of it's solvent properties, acetone is the most common ingredient in Nail Polish remover.
  • Acetone is also used to produce many other important chemicals. Some of these include methyl methacrylate (MMA), bisphenol-A (BPA) and methacrylic acid. The uses of MMA and BPA includes the production of many plastics, acrylic products, sealants, lacquers and epoxy’s.
  • It also has a long history in the cosmetic industry. It is commonly used in nail polish remover and in chemical peels. It is also used by make-up artists to remove skin glue on wigs and fake mustaches.
  • Acetone also has very important applications in the laboratory. It is used as a solvent in many chemical experiments and as an equipment cleaner. It is also used for safely storing acetylene, which is unsafe in its pure form.
  • It is also used in rubber cement and some household cleaners.
  • Roughly 75% of the available acetone is used to produce other chemicals, and 12% is used as a solvent. Applications range from surface coatings, films and adhesives to cleaning fluids and pharmaceutical applications.
  • Source:http://wanttoknowit.com/uses-of-acetone/
acetone can be found in the most common materials such as nail polish remover and some forms of wood removers and gas.
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Acetone is often the primary component in cleaning agents such as nail polish remover remover. Acetone is a component of superglue remover and easily removes residues from glass and porcelain. It is used as an artistic agent; when rubbed on the back of a laser print or photocopy placed face-down on another surface and burnished firmly, the toner of the image transfers to the destination surface. Make-up artists use acetone to remove skin adhesive from the netting of wigs and moustaches by immersing the item in an acetone bath, then removing the softened glue residue with a stiff brush.

Flammability

The most hazardous property of acetone is its extreme flammability. At temperatures greater than acetone's flash point of −20 °C (−4 °F), air mixtures of between 2.5% and 12.8% acetone, by volume, may explode or cause a flash fire. Vapors can flow along surfaces to distant ignition sources and flash back. static discharge may also ignite acetone vapors. It auto-ignites at 465 °C (869 °F).

Acetone as a source of nail polish remover

Many people like to wear clear or colored nail polish. When it is time to remove that nail polish, they reach for nail polish remover. Acetone nail polish remover is a type of nail polish remover that contains an ingredient called acetone. This type of nail polish remover usually takes off nail polish easier than a remover that does not contain acetone. Acetone nail polish remover is also useful for taking off false nails and removing strong glue from fingers.

Before applying a new coat of nail polish, the old polish should be completely removed and the nail should be cleaned. A person can do this by using acetone nail polish remover. Acetone nail polish remover is often the cheapest kind of remover available, and it is effective at removing nail polish quickly. It has a strong aroma and evaporates rapidly, leaving a cooling sensation on the nails. One of the main drawbacks of this type of nail polish remover is that it can dry out nails.
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Acetone is a natural material that is found in trees. It is also produced when the human body breaks down fat. In addition, acetone can be manufactured. It is a common ingredient in plastics.

The reason that acetone nail polish remover is so effective is because acetone is a solvent. In fact, acetone is used as a solvent in some laboratories and as an ingredient in some paint thinners and cleaning supplies. It is mentioned on Krazy® Glue packaging as one of the ways to free fingers stuck together by the glue. Although small amounts of acetone can be broken down by the liver without any adverse effects, moderate and large doses of the solvent can be harmful. Breathing in larger doses of the product can cause dizziness and coma. Eye and lung irritation can also result. In animals, acetone has also been shown to cause birth defects.The long term effects of acetone on humans are still not clear, but for some the known dangers are sufficient. For this reason, non-acetone nail polish removers are also available for purchase. Non-acetone nail polish removers are commonly more expensive than acetone-based versions. They also do not typically smell as strongly as acetone nail polish remover does. In addition, these removers are not usually as effective as acetone nail polish remover, so larger amounts may be necessary. Non-acetone removers are, however, normally easier on the nails. Thus, they may be the best choice for those with weak or brittle nails.

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Environmental effects

Acetone evaporates rapidly, even from water and soil. Once in the atmosphere, it is degraded by UV light with a 22-day half-life. Acetone dissipates slowly in soil, animals, or waterways since it is sometimes consumed by microorganisms, but it is a significant groundwater contaminant due to its high solubility in water. The LD50 of acetone for fish is 8.3 g/L of water (or about 0.8%) over 96 hours, and its environmental half-life is about 1 to 10 days. Acetone may pose a significant risk of oxygen depletion in aquatic systems due to the microbial activity consuming it



The most hazardous property of acetone is its extreme flammability.
Acetone has been studied extensively and is generally recognized to have low acute and chronic toxicity if ingested and/or inhaled. Inhalation of high concentrations (around 9200 ppm) in the air caused irritation of the throat in humans in as little as 5 minutes. Inhalation of concentrations of 1000 ppm caused irritation of the eyes and of the throat in less than 1 hour; however, the inhalation of 500 ppm of acetone in the air caused no symptoms of irritation in humans even after 2 hours of exposure. Acetone is not currently regarded as a [[/wiki/Carcinogen|carcinogen]], a [[/wiki/Mutagen|mutagenic]] chemical or a concern for chronic [[/wiki/Neurotoxicity|neurotoxicity]] effects.[19[[home#cite_note-msds-18|]]]
Acetone can be found as an ingredient in a variety of consumer products ranging from cosmetics to processed and unprocessed foods. Acetone has been rated as a GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) substance when present in beverages, baked foods, desserts, and preserves at concentrations ranging from 5 to 8 mg/L. Additionally, a joint U.S-European study found that acetone’s "health hazards are slight.
Acetone is a colorless and highly flammable manufactured liquid. It has a distinctive fruity or mint-like odor and a pungent taste. It is also found naturally in plants, trees, volcanic gases, and forest fires, and as a by-product of the breakdown of body fat. It is found in vehicle exhaust, tobacco smoke, and [[/text_version/locations.php?id=34|landfill]] sites. The chemical formula for acetone is C3H6O. Acetone is used as a solventto dissolve other substances, such as paints, varnishes, lacquers, fats, oils, waxes, resins, printing inks, plastics, and glues. It is used to make plastics, fibers, drugs, rayon, photographic film, smokeless powder, and other chemicals. It is also used for cleaning and drying precision parts. Household and consumer products that contain acetone include fingernail polish remover, particle board, paint remover, liquid or paste waxes and polishes, detergent, cleaning products, and rubber cement.
You can be exposed to acetone by breathing it, ingesting it, or absorbing it through your skin. Exposure can occur if you smoke cigarettes, or breathe second-hand cigarette smoke. You can also be exposed if you are exposed to isopropyl alcohol, which has medical and solvent uses, because isopropyl alcohol changes to acetone in the body. At home, you can be exposed to acetone by using nail polish remover, household cleaners, paints, adhesives, rubber cement, particle board, or other products that contain acetone. You can be exposed by drinking water or eating food containing acetone. Exposure can occur if you live near a landfill site that contains acetone, near busy roads, or near other facilities such as incinerators that release acetone emissions. At work, you can be exposed to acetone if you work at a facility that manufactures paints, plastics, chemicals, artificial fibers, and shoes. You can also be exposed if you work with paints, solvents, glues, and commercial cleaning products.
Exposure to high levels of acetone can cause death, coma, unconsciousness, seizures, and respiratory distress. It can damage your kidneys and the skin in your mouth.
Breathing moderate-to-high levels of acetone for short periods of time can cause nose, throat, lung, and eye irritation. It can also cause intoxication, headaches, fatigue, stupor, light-headedness, dizziness, confusion, increased pulse rate, nausea, vomiting, and shortening of the menstrual cycle in women.
Breathing highly concentrated acetone vapors can irritate the respiratory tract, and burn your eyes. Skin contact with acetone can irritate or damage your skin.
Exposure to acetone can also cause low blood pressure, bronchial irritation, difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, abdominal pain, and an increased need to urinate.

Where Found

  • Fingernail polish remover
  • Some cleaning solutions
  • Some glues, including rubber cement
  • Some lacquers
Note: This list may not be all-inclusive.

Symptoms

  • Cardiovascular system
    • Low blood pressure
  • Gastrointestinal system
    • Nausea
    • Pain in belly area (abdomen)
    • Person may have a fruity odor
    • Sweet taste in mouth
    • Vomiting
  • Nervous system
  • Respiratory system
  • Urinary system
    • Increased need to urinate
Acetone is one of the most widely used industrial solvents and is increasingly used as a chemical intermediate. See Product Uses.
Acetone is low in toxicity. It is a natural product of our body’s metabolism. See Health Information.
Acetone does not cause adverse health or environmental effects at levels typically found in the workplace or environment.
Acetone is extremely flammable with a high vapor pressure; use only with good ventilation and avoid all ignition sources. See Physical Hazard Information.

Manufacture of Product


  • Capacity – U.S. production capacity for acetone reached 1,839 thousand metric tons (4,055 million pounds) in 2002. Demand for acetone in the U.S. was 1,189 thousand metric tons (2,621 million pounds), and included some imports.1 Dow annually produces about 186 thousand metric tons (410 million pounds) or roughly 10% of the U.S. acetone, at its Texas Operations and Institute, West Virginia facilities.
  • Process – More than 90% of the U.S. acetone is produced as a co-product with phenol via the hydrolysis of cumene hydroperoxide. About 0.62 pound of acetone is produced per pound of phenol.2 Although acetone is not a hazardous air pollutant or volatile organic compound (VOC), considerable measures are taken to prevent its release to the atmosphere. Processes and equipment for manufacture, transfer and storage are continuous and enclosed. When loading the product in tank trucks or rail cars, Dow uses vapor recovery systems to prevent releases to the atmosphere.
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Product Description

Acetone is a clear, colorless, low-boiling, flammable and volatile liquid characterized by rapid evaporation and a faintly aromatic, sweetish odor. It readily mixes with most organic solvents and mixes completely with water. However, compatibility should be checked prior to mixing with other solvents or materials.3
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Uses for Acetone
Uses for Acetone

Roughly 75% of the available acetone is used to produce other chemicals,4 and 12% is used as a solvent. Applications range from surface coatings, films and adhesives to cleaning fluids and pharmaceutical applications. Other consumer and commercial applications include:
  • Lacquers for automotive/furniture finishes
  • Cellulose acetate films and fibers
  • Photographic films and plates casting
  • Coatings and inks
  • Resin thinners and clean-up operations
  • General purpose cements
  • Degreasing and degumming agents
  • Paint, varnish, lacquer strippers
  • Nail polish removers
  • Various cosmetic products

Exposure Potential

Based on the uses for acetone, the public could be exposed through:
  • Workplace exposure – This refers to potential exposure to acetone in an acetone/phenol manufacturing facility or through evaporation in various industrial and consumer product applications. Generally, exposure to acetone of personnel in acetone manufacturing facilities is relatively low because the process, storage and handling operations are enclosed. The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) is 1,000 parts per million (ppm) per an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA). The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Values (TLVs®) are 500 ppm 8-hour TWA, and 750 ppm for short-term exposure limit (STEL – 15 minutes).6
  • Consumer use of products containing acetone – This category of exposure is highly variable depending on the products used and the conditions under which they are used. Exposure of the majority of consumers to commercial acetone sources is likely to be infrequent and of short duration. Exposure could occur through the use of acetone in personal care items or in lacquers and paint. The best way to prevent exposure to vapors is to work in well-ventilated areas.
  • Environmental releases – Approximately 97% of the acetone released to the atmosphere comes from natural sources, such as decomposing vegetation and forest fires.6 Man-made releases of acetone to the atmosphere are comparatively small.
  • Catastrophic release – Industrial spills or releases are infrequent and often controlled. A spill poses a significant flammability issue. Levels of acetone in water as low as 1% can create a flammable headspace. Acetone may react vigorously with certain oxidizing agents such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Appropriate emergency response personnel should be called for large spills. Fires may be controlled with carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers or alcohol foam.7 The combustion products are carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O).

Health Information
Acetone has been studied extensively and is generally recognized to have low acute and chronic toxicity if ingested and/or breathed. Breathing high concentrations (around 9200 ppm) in the air caused irritation of the throat in humans in as little as 5 minutes. Breathing concentrations of 1000 ppm caused irritation of the eye and throat in less than 1 hour; however, breathing 500 ppm of acetone in the air caused no symptoms of irritation in humans even after 2 hours of exposure. Acetone is not currently regarded as a carcinogen, a mutagenic chemical or a concern for chronic neurotoxicity effects.8
Acetone can be found as an ingredient in a variety of consumer products ranging from cosmetics to processed and unprocessed foods. Acetone has been rated as a GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) substance when present in beverages, baked goods, desserts, and preserves at concentrations ranging from 5 to 8 mg/L.9 Additionally, a joint U.S-European study found that acetone’s "health hazards are slight."10
An extensive study was also conducted on "reasonably anticipated children’s exposures to acetone" from commonly found items such as the solvent in nail tip remover, nail polish remover, spray paint and spot remover. The conclusion was that acetone exposure from a child’s environment and from consumer products is unlikely to pose significant health risks. It was determined that 90 percent of acetone found in children was naturally produced in their bodies.11 The rest came primarily from natural food sources, such as onions, grapes, cauliflower, tomatoes, milk, cheese, beans and peas, as well as from mother’s milk.
Acetone in the Human Body
Acetone is naturally produced and disposed of in the human body as a result of normal metabolic processes. Reproductive toxicity tests show that it has low potential to cause reproductive problems. In fact, the body naturally increases the level of acetone in pregnant women, nursing mothers and children because their higher energy requirements lead to higher levels of acetone production.12 The medical community is now using ketogenic diets that increase acetone in the body to reduce epileptic attacks in infants and children who suffer from recalcitrant refractory epilepsy.
Environmental Information
Acetone is not expected to present a threat to the environment because of its low toxicity, high volatility and complete solubility in water. The intent, however, is to minimize any exposure to the environment from manufacturing and use activities. Firefighting guidelines should be followed closely. Additional information can be found on the Safety Data Sheet (SDS).
Physical Hazard Information
Acetone is a highly flammable material in both the liquid and vapor forms, has a relatively high vapor pressure, and should be handled only with adequate ventilation and in areas where ignition sources have been removed (e.g. matches and unprotected light switches).