A.K.A Asprin




File:Aspirin-skeletal.svg
File:Aspirin-skeletal.svg
File:Regular strength enteric coated aspirin tablets.jpg
File:Regular strength enteric coated aspirin tablets.jpg


Often used as an analgesic to relieve minor aches and pains, as an antipyretic to reduce fever, and as an anti-inflammatory medication.

It is found in several types of medications and can help with almost any illness and helps with the minimizing of heart diseases in older individuals. If taken too much one can become immune to its contents and need to increase their dosage or medication to help with pain. One should not take more than listed on the bottle to avoid overdose and too much asprin in the blood stream since it thins blood.

It was first isolated by Felix Hoffmann, a chemist with the German company Bayer, under the direction of Arthur Eichengrün.


The Use of Aspirinby Tash Hughes of Word Constructions
Aspirin is one of the most common drugs in use today. It has been in use since the 1890’s and has proven to be a drug of many uses in that time.

What is aspirin?
Aspirin is the general name for acetylsalicylic acid (ASA); it is also the trademark of the drug produced by Bayer in Germany. In eighty countries, aspirin is a registered trademark, but in other places the term aspirin refers to ASA by itself or as an ingredient in other drugs.
The synthetic drug was developed as an analgesic (painkiller) and this is still the main purpose of the drug in most people’s minds. It was the first NSAID (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug), and probably still the most effective.
Two complete families of drugs have been developed from ASA in the years since 1897.

How does it work?
When you are injured, your body produces prostaglandins which are complex fatty acids that act like hormones within body tissues. Prostaglandins act by stimulating the dilation (getting bigger) of blood vessels and muscle contraction; they are also the start of you feeling pain.
Aspirin appears to stop the production of prostaglandins by attaching to an enzyme, and thus stops the pain message reaching your brain. By reducing the production of a prostaglandin called thromboxane, aspirin can also prevent blood clotting and acts as an anticoagulant. This is an important clinical use in heart patients.
As aspirin is absorbed into the blood stream, it can travel to all parts of the body; prostaglandin production is high only in injured areas so aspirin is only effective in those areas and thus relieves the pain wherever it is felt.
By preventing prostaglandin production, aspirin is also reducing some necessary body functions. A single tablet every so often won’t have much impact on these functions, but care must be taken in regular users. Taking aspirin for pain relief for a wound can actually slow healing as platelets can’t clot to form scabs. Drugs based on aspirin, such as ibuprofen, naproxen and acetaminophen (Tylenol,) have been developed to avoid some of these adverse effects.
What is it used for?
During its history, aspirin has been found to have a number of uses besides pain relief. Many experiments have been carried out to test aspirin’s abilities in various areas and potential side effects, and some areas are still under investigation.
Are there any side effects?
Like all drugs, there are some risks of side effects from aspirin. Many are uncommon enough to be considered an acceptable risk for most patients, but there are some significant risks attached. Healthy people using aspirin occasionally as directed are unlikely to develop serious side effects.
The use of aspirin in children and teenagers with a fever, especially after a viral infection, has been associated with the development of a potentially fatal condition called Reye Syndrome. For that reason, it is recommended to NEVER GIVE ASPIRIN TO ANYONE UNDER THE AGE OF 16 or to anyone under 20 who has a fever.
Overdoses with aspirin are quite common and it is essential to keep them out of reach of children.
Aspirin can irritate the stomach, leading to nausea and vomiting, so it is best taken with or just after food. Other problems may be ringing in the ears, excessive bleeding, heartburn, indigestion and allergic reactions.
Analgesics like aspirin are excreted via the kidneys, and thus have the power to damage the kidneys and long term, low dose usage reduces renal function. Certain medical conditions and heavy drinking increase the risk of kidney damage.
Note: NEVER take aspirin if it has a vinegary smell as this means it is “off”.
Aspirin is an effective, useful drug when taken as directed and/or under medical supervision; however, it needs to be treated with respect.


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Acetylsalicylic Acid, also known by trade name Aspirin, is an acetyl derivative of salicylic acid that is a white, crystalline, weakly acidic substance, with melting point 137°C. It is useful in the relief of headache and muscle and joint aches. Aspirin is also effective in reducing fever, inflammation, and swelling and thus has been used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatic fever, and mild infection. Large doses cause acid-base imbalance and respiratory disturbances and can be fatal, especially in children. Acetaminophen (known by trade name Tylenol), which does not cause gastric irritation but does lower fever and relieve pain, is often substituted for Aspirin.
Acetylsalicylic Acid is used in analgesics, anti-inflammatories, antipyretics, anticoagulants and anti-rheumatics. It is also used as an additive in food, animal feed, drug and cosmetic.

Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs); chemically heterogeneous large groups of drugs which suppress inflammation in a manner similar to steroids, but less side effects of sedation, respiratory depression, or addiction than steroids. They are widely used for the treatment of inflammatory disorders and painful conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, gout, bursitis, painful menstruation, and headache. They are effective in the relief of pain and fever. NSAIDs inhibit the cyclooxygenase (COX) activity resulting in decreased synthesis of prostaglandin, leukotriene and thromboxane precursors such as the ubiquitous enzyme which catalyzes the initial step in the synthesis of prostanoids. Prostanoid is any of a group of C-20 fatty acids complex with an internal five or six carbon rings such as prostaglandins, prostanoic acid, prostacyclins, and thromboxane; derived from arachidonic acid (C-20 polyunsaturated fatty acid with four cis double bonds). The action or the synthesis of prostanoids are involved in the modulation of a variety of pathophysiologic processes including inflammation, hemostasis, thrombosis, cytoprotection, ulceration, hemodynamics and other the progression of kidney diseases. Thus, NSAIDs as non-selective inhibitors of the cyclooxygenases (both the cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 isoenzymes) may have beneficial as well as untoward effects on a variety of human diseases. Low stomach prostanoid levels caused by COX-1 inhibitors can result in ulceration and internal bleeding and perforation. The selective COX-2 inhibitors such as oxicam, meloxicam, and coxibs (celecoxib, rofecoxib, valdecoxib, parecoxib and etoricoxib) do not interfere with COX-1. The most prominent NSAID is aspirin. Nonaspirin NSAIDs can be classified based on chemical structures.

Definition

Aspirin is a medicine that relieves pain and reduces fever.

Purpose

Aspirin is used to relieve many kinds of minor aches and pains—headaches, toothaches, muscle pain, menstrual cramps, the joint pain from arthritis, and aches associated with colds and flu. Some people take aspirin daily to reduce the risk of stroke, heart attack, or other heart problems.

Description

Aspirin-also known as acetylsalicylic acid-is sold over the counter and comes in many forms, from the familiar white tablets to chewing gum and rectal suppositories. Coated, chewable, buffered, and extended release forms are available. Many other over-the-counter medicine contain aspirin. Alka-Seltzer Original Effervescent Antacid Pain Reliever, for example, contains aspirin for pain relief and sodium bicarbonate to relieve acid indigestion, heartburn, and sour stomach.
Aspirin belongs to a group of drugs called salicylates. Other members of this group include sodium salicylate, choline salicylate, and magnesium salicylate. These drugs are more expensive and no more effective than aspirin. However, they are a little easier on the stomach. Aspirin is quickly absorbed into the bloodstream and provides quick and relatively long-lasting pain relief. Aspirin also reduces inflammation. Researchers believe these effects come about because aspirin blocks the production of pain-producing chemicals called prostaglandins.
In addition to relieving pain and reducing inflammation, aspirin also lowers fever by acting on the part of the brain that regulates temperature. The brain then signals the blood vessels to widen, which allows heat to leave the body more quickly.===Precautions===
Aspirin-even children's aspirin-should never be given to children or teenagers with flu-like symptoms or chickenpox. Aspirin can cause Reye's syndrome, a life-threatening condition that affects the nervous system and liver. As many as 30% of children and teenagers who develop Reye's syndrome die. Those who survive may have permanent brain damage.
Check with a physician before giving aspirin to a child under 12 years for arthritis, rheumatism, or any condition that requires long-term use of the drug.
No one should take aspirin for more than 10 days in a row unless told to do so by a physician. Anyone with fever should not take aspirin for more than 3 days without a physician's consent. Do not to take more than the recommended daily dosage.People in the following categories should not use aspirin without first checking with their physician:
  • Pregnant women. Aspirin can cause bleeding problems in both the mother and the developing fetus. Aspirin can also cause the infant's weight to be too low at birth.
  • Women who are breastfeeding. Aspirin can pass into breast milk and may affect the baby.
  • People with a history of bleeding problems.
  • People who are taking blood-thinning drugs, such as warfarin (Coumadin).
  • People with a history of ulcers.
  • People with a history of asthma, nasal polyps, or both. These people are more likely to be allergic to aspirin.
  • People who are allergic to fenoprofen, ibuprofen, indomethacin, ketoprofen, meclofenamate sodium, naproxen, sulindac, tolmetin, or the orange foodcoloring tartrazine. They may also be allergic to aspirin.
  • People with AIDSor AIDS-related complex who are taking AZT (zidovudine). Aspirin can increase the risk of bleeding in these patients.
  • People taking certain other drugs (discussed in Interactions).
  • People with liver damage or severe kidney failure.
Aspirin should not be taken before surgery, as it can increase the risk of excessive bleeding. Anyone who is scheduled for surgery should check with his or her surgeon to find out how long before surgery to avoid taking aspirin.
Aspirin can cause stomach irritation. To reduce the likelihood of that problem, take aspirin with food or milk or drink a full 8-oz glass of water with it. Taking coated or buffered aspirin can also help. Be aware that drinking alcohol can make the stomach irritation worse.
Stop taking aspirin immediately and call a physician if any of these symptoms develop:
  • ringing or buzzing in the ears
  • hearing loss
  • dizziness
  • stomach pain that does not go away
Do not take aspirin that has a vinegary smell. That is a sign that the aspirin is too old and ineffective. Flush such aspirin down the toilet.
Because aspirin can increase the risk of excessive bleeding, do not take aspirin daily over long periods-to reduce the risk of stroke or heart attack, for example-unless advised to do so by a physician.

Side effects

The most common side effects include stomachache, heartburn, loss of appetite, and small amounts of blood in stools. Less common side effects are rashes, hives, fever, vision problems, liver damage, thirst, stomach ulcers, and bleeding. People who are allergic to aspirin or those who have asthma, rhinitis, or polyps in the nose may have trouble breathing after taking aspirin.

Interactions

Aspirin may increase, decrease, or change the effects of many drugs. Aspirin can make drugs such as methotrexate (Rheumatrex) and valproic acid (Depakote, Depakene) more toxic. If taken with blood-thinning drugs, such as warfarin (Coumadin) and dicumarol, aspirin can increase the risk of excessive bleeding. Aspirin counteracts the effects of other drugs, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and beta blockers, which lower blood pressure, and medicines used to treat gout (probenecid and sulfinpyrazone). Blood pressure may drop unexpectedly and cause fainting or dizziness if aspirin is taken along with nitroglycerin tablets. Aspirin may also interact with diuretics, diabetes medicines, other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), seizure medications, and steroids. Anyone who is taking these drugs should ask his or her physician whether they can safely take aspirin.