Acid Characteristics:

An acid is any compound that yields hydrogen cations(H+) or hydronium cations(H30+), when dissolved in water.
An acid has a pH of less than 7, with the smaller the number meaning a higher acidity. Some common acids range from hydrochloric acid with a pH of 0 to vinegar with a pH of approximately 3. An acid's pH is based off of the ratio of hydroniym cations to hydroxide anions. Some acids are corrosive.
A tool used to indicate the pH based on color
A tool used to indicate the pH based on color
An acid is a substance which reacts with a base to neutralize. Acid-base chemistry of atmospheric pollutants is the focus of analysis in the environmental aspects of acid rain. The neutralization between an acid and a base commonly produces salt and water. When acids dissolve in water, a reactive hydrogen ion will be transferred to a water molecule and form an ion called the hydronium ion, H30+. The degree to which an acid can ionize in water determines whether an acid is a strong acid or a weak acid.

Acid can be very dangerous to humans if the pH of a substance is low enough. Acids such as acetic acid can be very harmful and can burn individuals badly if not treated right away and can also ruin clothing by burning holes through it due to the pH levels found in the acid. There are thousands of different acids but the most common are listed bellow.
Some acids can react with metals producing Hydrogen and salt. Acid can be used as catalysts in organic and industrial fields. For example, sulfuric acid in large quantities used as a catalyst to produce gasoline. Rust is the result of the oxidation of metal, which is an excess of oxygen being chemically added to the metal by water. Oxidation turns iron into iron oxide, which is an acid that is corrosive. Acid is also involved in the function of batteries. This is the half-way reaction: a battery contains both an acidic and basic substance. When a current is created between the ends, then the acid breaks down the basic paste inside, which results in the discharge of electrons, which is the electricity. Rechargeable batteries take advantage of the fact that this reaction can go in reverse: charging a battery is adding to the basic paste in the battery. More basic paste means that there are more electrons to lose. However, even rechargeable batteries lose the ability to gain more paste eventually and become useless. Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) is an essential vitamin to our bodies and is present in many fruits. The hydrochloric acid in our stomach helps our digestion. Amino acid is one of the necessary proteins required by growth of body.
Carboxylic acid
Acetic acid
Sulfuric acid
Nitric acid
Carbonic acid
Boric acid
phosphoric acid
Citric acid
Hypochlorous acid


Gastric Acid
Gastric acid is one of the main secretions of the stomach, along with several enzymes and intrinsic factor. Chemically it is an acid solution consisting of hydrochloric acid (HCl), and small quantities of potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium chloride (NaCl). There are possible problems if a person has low stomach acid or also known as hypochlorhydria. These problems are failure to digest food, failure to trace elements, failure to sterilize the stomach and increase risk for stomach cancer. Treatment for this problem would be take acid supplements and intake high doses or ascorbic acids such as vitamin C. There are possible problems if a person's stomach acid is too much as well. These problems are heartburn, bloating, and flatulence. To reduce acid in the stomach take acid reflexes. If a person has ulcers and high acid in the stomach this can cause serious problems. The acid begins to destroy the stomach lining and the ulcers will begin to bleed. This could be life threatening if the stomach content leaks into the abdominal cavity.

stomach_acid.jpg


These are some acids and their chemical formulas:
external image comacid.gif150px-Carboxylic-acid.svg.png





some information in this article is from Lab Experiments in chem 103.

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There are numerous uses for acids. Acids are often used to remove rust and other corrosion from metals in a process known as metal picking.
Strong acids, sulfuric acid in particular, are widely used in mineral processing. For example, phosphate minerals react with sulfuric acid to produce [[/wiki/Phosphoric_acid|phosphoric acid]] for the production of phosphate fertilizers, and [[/wiki/Zinc|zinc]] is produced by dissolving zinc oxide into sulfuric acid, purifying the solution and electrowinning.
In the chemical industry, acids react in neutralization reactions to produce salts. For example, [[/wiki/Nitric_acid|nitric acid]] reacts with [[/wiki/Ammonia|ammonia]] to produce a fertilizer. Additionally, [[/wiki/Carboxylic_acid|carboxylic acids]] can be [[/wiki/Esterification|esterified]] with [[/wiki/Alcohol|alcohols]], to produce
Acids are used as additives to drinks and foods, as they alter their taste and serve as preservatives. [[/wiki/Phosphoric_acid|Phosphoric acid]], for example, is a component of [[/wiki/Cola|cola]] drinks. Acetic acid is used in day to day life as vinegar. Carbonic acid is an important part of some cola drinks and soda. Citric acid is used as a preservative in sauces and pickles.
is an important component of some commonly used foods like unripened mangoes and tamarind. Natural fruits and vegetables also contain acids. is present in oranges, lemon and other citrus fruits. [[/wiki/Oxalic_acid|Oxalic acid]] is present in tomatoes, spinach, and especially in [[/wiki/Carambola|carambola]] and rhubarb leaves and unripe carambolas are toxic because of high concentrations of oxalic acid.
(Vitamin C) is an essential vitamin required in our body and is present in such foods as amla, lemon, citrus fruits, and guava.
Certain acids are used as drugs. (Aspirin) is used as a pain killer and for bringing down fevers.
Acids play very important roles in the human body. The hydrochloric acid present in our stomach aids in digestion by breaking down large and complex food molecules. Amino acids are required for synthesis of proteins required for growth and repair of our body tissues. Fatty acids are also required for growth and repair of body tissues. Nucleic acids are important for the manufacturing of DNA, RNA and transmission of characters to offspring through genes. Carbonic acid is important for maintenance of pH equilibrium in the body.
At the simplest definition, an acid is any compound that yields hydrogen ions (H+) or hydronium ions (H3O+) when dissolved in water. Hydronium ions are really the combination of H+ ions and H2O molecules, i.e.
H+ + H2O === H3O+.
Table of Common Acids - [[./|Chime in new window]]
[[./|Hydrochloric]] -
HCl
Muriatic Acid - common name; Toilet bowl cleaners, masonry cleaners, gastric juice
Carbonic -
H2CO3
Carbonated water; club soda - soft drinks, blood buffer
[[./|Sulfuric]] -
H2SO4
Battery Acid; lead battery, air pollutant mist, acid rain
[[./|Acetic]] -
HC2H3O2
Vinegar; cooking, salads
[[./|Nitric]] -
HNO3
Remove warts, causes yellow stains on skin
Phosphoric -
H3PO4
Acidify soft drinks, in ATP and DNA
Citric -
H3C6H8O6
Fruit juices
[[./|Lactic]] -
HC3H5O3
Builds up in muscles during exercise

Acids taste sour, are corrosive to metals, change litmus (a dye extracted from lichens) red, and become less acidic when mixed with [[/library/pop_glossary_term.php?oid=1574&l=|bases]].

external image comacid.gif

I. Acids
*Acids are ionic compounds ( a compound with a positive or negative charge) that break apart in water to form a hydrogen ion (H+).
*The strength of an acid is based on the concentration of H+ ions in the solution. The more H+ the stronger the acid. Example: HCl (Hydrochloric acid) in water
external image HCl.GIF

Characteristics of Acids: Acids taste sour Acids react strongly with metals (Zn + HCl) Strong Acids are dangerous and can burn your skin Examples of Acids:** 1. Vinegar 3. Citrus Fruits
2. Stomach Acid (HCl)