Caffeine

Caffeine is a bitter, white crystalline xanthine alkaloid that acts as a stimulant drug. Caffeine is found in varying quantities in the seeds, leaves, and fruit of some plants, where it acts as a natural pesticide that paralyzes and kills certain insects feeding on the plants. It is most commonly consumed by humans in infusions extracted from the seed of the coffee plant and the leaves of the tea bush, as well as from various foods and drinks containing products derived from the kola nut. Other sources include yerba maté, guarani berries, guayusa, and the yaupon holly.

Caffeine stimulates the Central Nervous System:
Caffeine acts as a central nervous system stimulant, which can give alertness to the user. It is the worlds most widely consumed psychoactive drug; global consumption of caffeine has been estimated at 120,000 tons per year. In low doses there's little known health risks, but it high concentrations it can be toxic. Clinically proven to produce a physical and mental dependence with heavy use. It can be found in seeds, leaves, and fruits of some plants, which it can act as a natural pesticide that will kill insects feeding on the plants. It is mostly extracted from coffee plants and leaves of tea bushes. Caffeine comes from the a stimulant group that is called methylxanthine or xanthine that occur in plants or cocoa trees. Decaffeinated beverages are not completely free of all caffeine. Only about 97% of the chemical is removed from the beverages that are composed of it, it is nearly impossible to completely remove all of it from the seeds that the chemical is extracted from. In North America, 90% of adults consume it daily. Caffeine is used to treat headaches in combination with other pain relievers, increase motor skills and increase awareness. Mid-European scientists used caffeine to help with vertigo, coughs and they thought to prevent the plague from spreading. Present scientists understand that not nearly as many health benefits come from drinking large amounts of caffeine.

History
In 1820, German chemist Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge first isolated Caffeine from coffee. French chemist Pierre Pelletier coined the word "caffeine" from the French word for coffee, and that's where the English word Caffeine originated.

Commonly used in coffee and the energizing drinks like Redbull. Popularly consumed for energizing.

http://well.blogs.nytiyounger-women/?ref=caffeinemes.com/2012/01/27/caffeine-alters-estrogen-levels-in-
January 27, 2012, 2:16 pm

Caffeine Alters Estrogen Levels in Younger Women

By ANAHAD O'CONNOR, Reporter
Can your dose of caffeine affect estrogen levels?
Can your dose of caffeine affect estrogen levels?

external image Caffeine5981.jpg
Tony Cenicola/The New York Times Can a dose of caffeine affect estrogen levels?
Your daily dose of caffeine may tinker with more than just your energy levels.
A new study of women ages 18 to 44 found that drinking coffee and other caffeinated beverages can alter levels of estrogen. But the impact varies by race. In white women, for example, coffee appears to lower estrogen, while in Asian women it has the reverse effect, raising levels of the hormone.
The study did not look at older women, but women of child-bearing age who enjoy a daily cuppa have little reason to fret, the researchers said. The effects of caffeine on estrogen are so minimal that in healthy women, it has no impact on ovulation or overall health, at least in the short term.
“This is important physiologically because it helps us understand how caffeine is metabolized by different genetic groups,” said Dr. Enrique Schisterman, an author of the study and senior investigator at the National Institutes of Health. “But for women of reproductive age, drinking coffee will not alter their hormonal function in a clinically significant way.”
The study, which was published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, analyzed data on more than 250 women who were examined one to three times a week over two menstrual cycles. They provided blood samples along with details about behaviors like exercise, eating and smoking. On average, they consumed about 90 milligrams of caffeine a day, equivalent to roughly one cup of coffee.
After controlling for a number of variables, like age and diet, the researchers found that among Asian women, those who had 200 milligrams or more of caffeine a day had higher estrogen levels compared to those who consumed less. A similar pattern was seen among black women, though it was not statistically significant. In white women, however, 200 milligrams or more of caffeine appeared to have a slight lowering effect on estrogen.
Nationwide, about 90 percent of women between the ages of 18 and 34 drink the caffeine equivalent of one to two cups of coffee every day.
Why caffeine would have a different impact depending on race was unclear, though Dr. Schisterman said it was likely that genetics has an influence on caffeine metabolism. But the

source of caffeine also seemed to make a difference. When the researchers looked exclusively at caffeine from beverages other than coffee — like green tea and soda — it was linked to higher estrogen in all women, regardless of race. Various levels of antioxidants and other compounds in the drinks, as well as additives like milk and sugar, might play a role, he said.

Dr. Schisterman noted that while healthy, premenopausal women should not worry about caffeine intake in the short term, more research was needed to see if there could be a cumulative impact over many years or decades.
“We don’t know if there are long-term effects of these small shifts in hormonal levels,” he said.

Four caffeine-induced disorders are recognized by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) including: caffeine intoxication, caffeine-induced sleep disorder, caffeine-induced anxiety disorder and caffeine-related disorder not otherwise specified (NOS). In moderate doses it may reduce symptoms of depression and lower suicide risk. High doses may trigger anxiety and rarely mania and psychosis. As of 2010 the effect of caffeine on people with ADHD is not known. The DSM-IV defines caffeine-induced sleep disorder, as an individual who regularly ingests high doses of caffeine sufficient to induce a significant disturbance in his or her sleep, sufficiently severe to warrant clinical attention.
Caffeine can have both positive and negative effects on anxiety disorders depending on the dose. At high doses, typically greater than 300 mg, it can both cause and worsen anxiety. At low doses it may have little effect or may reduce symptoms of anxiety. Caffeine withdrawal, on the other hand, can cause an increase in anxiety level. In moderate doses caffeine typically does not affect learning or memory. It does however improve cognitive function in people who are fatigued, due to its effect on alertness. Some studies have however found a modest protective against Alzheimer disease, but the evidence is inconclusive

List of products that contain caffeine:
Cola
Coffee
NoDoz
Tea
Chocolate
Red Bull
Rockstar
Chocolate Milk
Hot coco
Full Throttle


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Caffeine is used in energy drinks

The formula for Caffeine is C8
H
10
N
4
O
2.
Molecular structure of caffeine
Molecular structure of caffeine
crystalline xanthine alkaloid powder
crystalline xanthine alkaloid powder



Myths of Caffeine:
Caffeine Myth No. 1: Caffeine Is Addictive
This one has some truth to it, depending on what you mean by "addictive." Caffeine is a stimulant to the central nervous system, and regular use of caffeine does cause mild physical dependence. But caffeine doesn't threaten your physical, social, or economic health the way addictive drugs do.
If you stop taking caffeine abruptly, you may have symptoms for a day or more, especially if you consume two or more cups of coffee a day. Symptoms of withdrawal from caffeine include:
  • headache
  • fatigue
  • anxiety
  • irritability
  • depressed mood
  • difficulty concentrating
No doubt, caffeine withdrawal can make for a few bad days. However, caffeine does not cause the severity of withdrawal or harmful drug-seeking behaviors as street drugs or alcohol. For this reason, most experts don't consider caffeine dependence a serious addiction.

Caffeine Myth No. 2: Caffeine Is Likely to Cause Insomnia

Your body quickly absorbs caffeine. But it also gets rid of it quickly. Processed mainly through the liver, caffeine has a relatively short half-life. This means it takes about five to seven hours, on average, to eliminate half of it from your body. After eight to 10 hours, 75% of the caffeine is gone. For most people, a cup of coffee or two in the morning won't interfere with sleep at night.

Consuming caffeine later in the day, however, can interfere with sleep. If you're like most people, your sleep won't be affected if you don't consume caffeine at least six hours before going to bed. Your sensitivity may vary, though, depending on your metabolism and the amount of caffeine you regularly consume. People who are more sensitive may not only experience insomnia but also have caffeine side effects of nervousness and gastrointestinal upset.


Caffeine Myth No. 3: Caffeine Increases Risk for Conditions Such as Osteoporosis, Heart Disease, and Cancer

Moderate amounts of caffeine -- about 300 milligrams, or three cups of coffee -- apparently cause no harm in most healthy adults. Some people are more vulnerable to its effects, however. That includes such people as those who have high blood pressure or are older.

Caffeine Myth No. 4: Caffeine Is Harmful for Women Trying to Get Pregnant

Many studies show no links between low amounts of caffeine (a cup of coffee per day) and any of the following:
  • trouble conceiving
  • miscarriage
  • birth defects
  • premature birth
  • low birth rate
At the same time, for pregnant women or those attempting pregnancy, the March of Dimes suggests fewer than 200 milligrams of caffeine per day. That's largely because in limited studies, women consuming higher amounts of caffeine had an increased risk for miscarriage.

Caffeine Myth No. 5: Caffeine Has a Dehydrating Effect
Caffeine can make you need to urinate. However, the fluid you consume in caffeinated beverages tends to offset the effects of fluid loss when you urinate. The bottom line is that although caffeine does act as a mild diuretic, studies show drinking caffeinated drinks doesn't actually cause dehydration.

Caffeine Myth No. 6: Caffeine Harms Children, Who, Today, Consume Even More Than Adults

As of 2004, children ages 6 to 9 consumed about 22 milligrams of caffeine per day. However, energy drinks that contain caffeine are becoming increasingly popular.

Studies suggest that up to 300 milligrams of caffeine daily is safe for kids. But is it smart? Many kids are sensitive to caffeine, developing temporary anxiety or irritability, with a "crash" afterwards. Also, most caffeine that kids drink is in sodas, energy drinks, or sweetened teas, all of which have high sugar content. These empty calories put kids at higher risk for obesity.
Even if the caffeine itself isn't harmful, caffeinated drinks are generally not good for kids.

Caffeine Myth No. 7: Caffeine Can Help You Sober Up
Actually, research suggests that people only think caffeine helps them sober up. For example, people who drink caffeine along with alcohol think they're OK behind the wheel. But the truth is reaction time and judgment are still impaired. College kids who drink both alcohol and caffeine are actually more likely to have car accidents.

Caffeine Myth No. 8: Caffeine Has No Health Benefits
Caffeine has few proven health benefits. But the list of caffeine's potential benefits is interesting. Any regular coffee drinker may tell you that caffeine improves alertness, concentration, energy, clear-headedness, and feelings of sociability. You might even be the type who needs that first cup o' Joe each morning before you say a single word. Scientific studies support these subjective findings. One French study even showed a slower decline in cognitive ability among women who consumed caffeine.

Other possible benefits include improved immune function from caffeine's anti-inflammatory effects and help with allergic reactions due to caffeine's ability to reduce concentrations of histamines. Some people's asthma also appears to benefit from caffeine. These research findings are intriguing, but still need to be proven.


Limited evidence suggests caffeine may also reduce the risk of the following:
  • Parkinson's disease
  • liver disease
  • colorectal cancer
  • type 2 diabetes
  • dementia

Despite its potential benefits, don't forget that high levels of caffeine may have adverse effects. More studies are needed to confirm both its benefits and potential risks.